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Types of nomination in the compared languages (general/specific; abstract/concrete nomination).

Every language is unique not only in its structural features, but also as regards tendencies and established ways of using words. Typical choices showing which words are particularly favoured by native speakers of a given language with reference to a certain situation constitute the Grammar of Speech. This notion has a direct bearing on the idiom of the language – its specific features derived from norms adopted by speakers in communication.

There are contexts where the Russian language possesses a variety of means for ‘concrete’ nomination. English, on the contrary, tends to employ a general terms regardless of details.

Let us have a look at the verb ‘be’, which is an example of how the English nominal predicate can be translated in the verbal one in Russian parallel phrases: 1) He is in the hospital - Он лежит в больнице. 2) He is at school - Он учится в школе. 3) The cupboard is in the left corner – Шкаф стоит в левом углу. 4) Tuesday in was the opening of a new season. – Во вторник состоялось открытие нового сезона.

Another example is the existential construction ‘there is/there are’ which has no direct equivalent in Russian. In translation, however, more precise features of various contexts call for particular item in Russian: There are many apples on the table. – На столе лежит много яблок. There is a picture on the wall. – На стене висит картина. There are beautiful flowers in my garden. – В моем саду растут красивые цветы.

Concretizaton and Generalization are among lexical transformations i.e. when a general item is translated by means of a word with a narrower meaning and vice versa.

A dash is another type of nomination which Russian prefers: My father is a doctor. – Мой отец доктор. I enjoy eating apples. – Я люблю яблоки.

Concerning the use of lexical transformations is actual speech situations, it can be argued that they can be realized as contextual, expressive, introduces as a compensation device, and syntagmatically conditioned ones.
The choice of a verb denoting  movement or a verb of speaking in translation can be determined  by a broad context (the entire information available to the reader or speaker  from the narrative or conversation including the extralinguistic parameters of the situation. In a book of fiction this may involve characterization of personages) or narrow context (emotional state of the speaker)

Some examples:
“There’s more in the frying pan, sweetums,” said Aunt Petunia, turning misty eyes on her massive son. “We must build you up while we’ve got the chance… I don’t like the sound of that school food…”
“Nonsense, Petunia, I never went hungry when I was at Smeltings,” said Uncle Vernon heartily. “Dudley gets enough, don’t you, son?”
Dudley, who was so large his bottom drooped over either side of the kitchen chair, grinned and turned to Harry.
“Pass the frying pan.”
“You’ve forgotten the magic word,” said Harry irritably.
The effect of this simple sentence on the rest of the family was incredible: Dudley gasped and fell off his chair with a crash that shook the whole kitchen; Mrs. Dursley gave a small scream and clapped her hands to her mouth; Mr. Dursley jumped to his feet, veins throbbing in his temples.
“I meant ‘please’!” said Harry quickly. “I didn’t mean—”
“WHAT HAVE I TOLD YOU,” thundered his uncle, spraying spit over the table, “ABOUT SAYING THE ‘M’ WORD IN OUR HOUSE?”(Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone)
 — Возьми, деточка, со сковородки. Там еще много, — сказала тетя Петунья, и глаза ее от умиления увлажнились. — Кушай на здоровье, пока есть возможность. Школьная еда просто отвратительна!
— Глупости, Петунья, — отрезал дядя Вернон. — Я в этой превосходной школе никогда не голодал. Думаю, и нашему сыну еды там хватает.
Дадли, очевидно, еды хватало: он был такой толстый, что бока у него свисали с краев табуретки.
— Дай мне сковородку, — приказал он Гарри.
— Ты забыл волшебное слово, — напомнил ему Гарри.
Эта простая фраза подействовала на семейство, как красная тряпка на быка. Дадли ойкнул и с грохотом свалился с табуретки. Миссис Дурсль, вскрикнув, прижала ко рту ладони. А мистер Дурсль вскочил со стула, и на висках у него вздулись синие жилки.
— Я только хотел сказать: он забыл слово «пожалуйста», — стал торопливо оправдываться Гарри.

05.03.2016; 18:00
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